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Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

Bias is a form of prejudice where a group or individual is treated unfairly compared to others. For example, racial bias, which is one race being treated unfairly in a situation compared to another race. Confounding is when distortion is created between the exposed and outcome because of another variable. The criteria for establishing a confounding is the connection between if exposure A is a cause of the disease B. For example, is the factor a known risk for causing the disease B and is the factor associated with exposure A, but is not a result of exposure A. For example, during a study, it showed that increased coffee drinking increases the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is diagnosed with 28,000-30,300 individuals per year with a low survival rate of 19% in 1-year and 4% in 5 years. However, due to confounding, a third variable appeared, which is smoking, such as increased coffee drinking leads to smoking, which leads to increased risk of pancreatic cancer. This shows that the confounding factor affects the diseases but can be associated or not with coffee drinking (Celentano& Szklo, 2019; center for diseases control and prevention, 2019).

A way to establish adjustment in a confounding relationship is stratification when the number of factors available is limited. For example, the textbook demonstrated a situation where smoking is a risk for lung cancer, but air pollution could be a factor. Lung cancer is a serious illness that has many factors, where approximately 235,000 new cases of lung cancer appears each year, with 14% of newly discovered cancers being lung cancer, with approximately 155,000 deaths per year. Therefore, using stratification, the researchers compared the rate of lung cancer in urban community in smokers and nonsmokers. If the rate of lung cancer is higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers, then smoking is the factor. However, if more lung cancer rate is higher in nonsmokers than smokers, then air-pollution is the factor (Celentano& Szklo, 2019; American cancer society, 2020).


American Cancer Society. (2020). Key statistics for lung cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-cancer/about/key-statistics.html

Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295

center for disease control and prevention. (2019). Pancreatic Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20037430.html

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


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